Fish Culture Hall of Fame

The Fish Culture Hall of Fame was established in 1985 by the Fish Culture Section of the American Fisheries Society to honor persons who have made significant contributions to the advancement of fish culture.The Hall of Fame is located in a replica 1899 Ice House located at the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery in Spearfish, South Dakota. Below are the inductees, including biosketches detailing their significant contributions to fish culture. Click here to learn more about the D.C. Booth hatchery, or here to learn more about the Booth Society. To nominate a fish culturist for induction into the Hall of Fame, contact the Chair of the FCS Hall of Fame Committee, or the Hatchery Hall of Fame Coordinator for nomination forms and information.

David C. Haskell started his fisheries career as a summer employee at Warrensburg, New York, State Fish Hatchery. After receiving a BS Degree in Electrical Engineering in 1930, he worked with General Electric until terminated by the depression. In 1933 he returned to fisheries as a Hatchery Manager and continued until retirement in 1970. During this period he published many papers principally on fish-cultural methods. He also worked on early electrofishing methods in the United Sates and published papers on its initiation and development. David Haskell is widely known among fish culturists for his 1959 publication “Trout Growth in Hatcheries.” This publication was a cornerstone in the development of scientific growth and feed projections and carrying capacities based on temperature units. Upon retirement he continued to work on fish culture problems of interest. David Haskell is recognized as one of the worlds significant contributors to the science of fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1985. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Glenn L. Hoffman received his BA Degree in 1945 and Ph.D. in 1950. He has been a major contributor to fish culture through his activities in fish parasitology. A major work was his 1967 book “Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes”. This book has become known as the “Bible of Fish Parasitology”. In addition to this book, he has published almost 200 other scientific papers. Besides his personal publications, he assisted with translating several foreign language disease books into English, and for many years assisted with teaching fish disease courses. Fishery programs worldwide have benefited from his research publications and teaching. His work extends beyond the United States, through collaborations with scientists in at least seven foreign nations. He has been referred to as “A Living Legend in Fish Parasitology”. Glenn Hoffman’s work has been a major factor in the advancement of fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1985. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Dewitt Clinton (D.C.) Booth, born August 5, 1893, received his education at Colgate University, New York. He was the first Federal Fisheries Civil Service Employee and started his career at Cape Vincent, New York, and continued with assignments at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and Leadville, Colorado. He was then promoted to Superintendent at Spearfish, South Dakota arriving in July 1899 and was the youngest Superintendent in the Fishery Corps. D.C., as he insisted on being called, retired in 1933 at Spearfish, after 40 years of Government service. In 1901, headquartered at Spearfish, he was directed to develop the Yellowstone Park fishery, 400 miles distant. Under primitive conditions, he established the first Fish Hatchery in Yellowstone and for the next ten years, harvested, shipped and stocked millions of eggs from the Yellowstone stocks. He also introduced new species to the park during this time. Booth’s efforts resulted in new fisheries throughout Yellowstone, the U.S. and foreign countries, many of which are still enjoyed today. D.C. Booth not only pioneered and developed the magnificent and internationally known Yellowstone Park Fishery, but the South Dakota Black Hills Fishery as well. He was a friend of Presidents, fought for new programs, tried new ideas, trained culturists and expanded fishing opportunities. He contributed well to our recreational, social and economic well being and has left us a legacy. D.C. Booth a sometimes stern and tough taskmaster, through his innovativeness, stubbornness, persistence and tenacity was a true pioneer in Western fisheries development. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Oren M. Chase was born in 1840 in Rochester, New York. America’s most prominent fish culture pioneer, Seth Green, recruited him to work for the New York Fish Commission. In 1875, because of Chase’s outstanding record with the commission, George Jerome, Michigan’s Fisheries Superintendent, recruited his to operate the Detroit Whitefish Hatchery. Eventually in September 1882, he was appointed Michigan Fisheries Superintendent. November 1883 proved to be tragic as Oren Chase, while on duty, drowned in Lake Michigan, ending a brilliant fisheries career. Perhaps Oren Chase’s single most significant contribution to fish culture was his invention of the glass hatching jar. It was a major step ahead in fish culture, in that it improved and simplified the incubation of the eggs of walleye, whitefish and other species. The device became known as the “Chase Jar.” In 1880, six of the “Chase Jars” were sent tot the International Exhibition in Berlin, Germany. Oren Chase received the “Golden Medal of Honor” for his invention. With some refinements to the original model, it is still widely used throughout the world. Oren Chase was a resourceful and innovative thinker and inventor. His invention, the “Chase Jar,” is an example. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

George H. Jerome was born in 1819 in Pompey, New York and attended Hamilton College where he earned a Law Degree. He moved to Michigan, practiced Law, eventually moving to Chicago, Iowa and back to Michigan. Upon returning to Michigan, Jerome actively pursued legislation to establish a Michigan Fish Commission. He was appointed to the Commission, then was persuaded to resign and become Michigan’s first Fishery Superintendent. In 1874, he established Michigan’s first State Fish Hatchery, and experimented with Michigan’s first introduction of eels, shad and atlantic and chinook salmon. He established the Detroit Whitefish Hatchery in 1876. George E. Jerome while not trained in fisheries or the biological sciences recognized the immediate and future potential of fisheries. Many of his early thoughts, writings and predictions, strange at the time, were later proven true. Jerome was a man ahead of his time, and a zealous and enthusiastic fish culture pioneer. He possessed a strong and sturdy individuality making him conspicuous among his fellows. The early foundations laid by pioneers such a George H. Jerome are the roots of modern fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Arthur Morton Phillips, Jr. graduated from Cornell University in 1936 with a B.S. Degree. He earned his Ph.D. (fisheries) in 1939 and immediately started his fisheries career as an assistant in fish nutrition and biochemistry with the New York Conservation Department. In 1941, he entered the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife at Leavenworth, Washington leading to his assignment at the Cortland, New York Laboratory and Fish Hatchery. He remained at Cortland and served as Laboratory Director from 1945 until his retirement in 1974. During his career, he authored or co-authored more than 100 scientific papers in trout nutrition and physiology. Arthur M. Phillips is widely known for developing and teaching the Cortland Coldwater Training Course for inservice biologists, hatcherymen, university and foreign students. During his career, countless students benefited from his informative and dedicated instruction. He is further well known for his fish nutrition and diet research. His “Cortland No. 6 Diet” was accepted worldwide as a basis of hatchery production. His special studies centered around vitamin requirements, metabolism and physiology. Arthur M. Phillips demonstrated and instilled high standards of excellence in cold-water fish culture students. He is recognized worldwide in both the research and fish culture communities for his contributions in fish nutrition, research and training. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Jack R. Snow graduated from Auburn University earning a B.S. Degree in 1942 and a M.S. Degree in 1948. He started his fisheries career in 1950, when he joined the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. His assignment was at the Marion, Alabama National Fish Hatchery and Training School, where he served as Director until 1974 when he retired. He joined the Auburn University Fisheries Department serving until 1983. During his career, he published more than 55 scientific articles and papers on warm-water fish culture. Jack R. Snow is widely known among fish culturists and others for his excellent training program at the Marion school. During his career at Marion, Jack Snow trained more than 121 culturists using a unique “hands on and classroom” program. His service at Auburn University involved training, extension work and consulting with assignments in at least seven foreign countries. His capability as a dedicated teacher instilled high standards of knowledge and excellence into warm-water fish culturists nationally and internationally. He is recognized worldwide as a leader in warm-water fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Homer S. Swingle graduated from Ohio State University with a M.S. in Zoology/Entomology in 1925. He was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Science degree in 1958 in recognition of his accomplishments as a scientist and contributor to fisheries and aquaculture. During his career, he authored over seventy scientific papers, bulletins and circulars. His contributions to fishery management and aquaculture have had a profound impact on fishery development in the United States and throughout the world. He gained an international reputation for developing methods and techniques to manage and increase the harvest of ponds and lakes. These methods led to vastly increased fish production of both sport and food fish. His fish management methods are used worldwide to increase protein for hungry people. Homer Swingle became an international traveler, directly assisting and advising more than twenty countries on fish production techniques. Numerous times he was assigned to represent the U.S. Government on fishery matters. Dr. Swinlge’s leadership led to the expansion of Auburn University into one of the world’s largest fishery research and teaching institutions. He counseled Presidents and Prime Ministers, lectured to scientists and scholars, but never lost the quality of humbleness. He always took time to talk to a student; offering counsel and an encouraging word. Homer S. Swingle is indeed one of the world’s greatest modern contributors to fish culture and the winner of many prestigious awards and citations. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Harvey Willoughby graduated from Montana State University in 1941, and began a fisheries career with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He is widely known for his work at Spearfish, South Dakota, where he pioneered in the development of nutritious dry diets for trout. He also developed feeding tables and methods that were adopted by fishery workers in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, India, Korea, Peru and other countries. The wide utilization of his findings reduced production costs and increased yields of intensively reared fish. While at Spearfish, he developed a training course for fish culturists and was a firm advocate of scientifically trained fish culturists and continuing education. His dedication to the responsibility of the Federal Government to the science and advancement of fish culture led to the establishment of five National Fish Cultural Development Centers. The results have improved the survival, growth and quality of fish not only nationally but worldwide as well. Harvey Willoughby was a leader in developing and implementing a National Fish Disease Control Policy. Regulations he helped develop were the first nationwide efforts to control the spread of devastating fish disease. He further served as a U.S. government fisheries consultant to Yugoslavia, Japan and South Korea. He has contributed much to the physical and mental health of the American people by providing and upgrading the quality of fish life for recreation and food. Harvey Willoughby’s entire life has been one of quiet but effective dedication to bettering the lot of his fellow man through the improvement of our environment by the enhancement of fish and wildlife values. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1986. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Seth Green Popularly known as the “Father of Fish Culture in North America”, Seth Green was born in 1817 in Rochester, New York. His early observations of wild spawning salmon led him to believe that artificial propagation and rearing of tout species could be done by man. After acquiring a hatchery site at Caledonia, New York he began his experiments which ultimately resulted in the development of fundamental hatchery methods and mechanisms which are still in use today. Seth Green was one of the earliest fisheries pioneers to culture brook trout, rainbow trout, lake trout, landlocked salmon, grayling, herring, whitefish, carp and goldfish. He pioneered planting of many species in the eastern United States and transported shad fry west, stocking the Sacramento River and successfully establishing shad in California. Seth Green and R.B. Roosevelt collaborated on “Fish Hatchery and Fish Catching”, one of the country’s earliest fish culture publications. As an American fish culturist, Seth worked closely with the European countries. In 1869, France awarded him a medal. Soon after, both England and Germany similarly honored him. Seth Green was always willing to help; he conducted voluminous correspondence and was widely known and quoted. Horace Greeley, of the New York Tribune, frequently published his exploits. As the nation’s fishery authority, the White House was in constant contact with him regarding matters of fish and fishing. Seth Green was a humble man, a great teacher, thinker and innovator. The valuable aquaculture industry that exists today had its roots in Seth Green’s vision. He is truly the “Father of Fish Culture in North America”. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1987. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Albert G. Morris was born November 27, 1905, in Dadevaille, Missouri. He attended college in Illinois and Colorado. In 1928, he joined the Missouri Conservation Commission at the Chesapeake State Fish Hatchery, Missouri. He was promoted to State Supervisor of Hatcheries in 1948 and continued his fish culture work for 41 years until he retired in 1969. Albert G. Morris developed Missouri’s highly successful catfish propagation program, which still continues today. His catfish work was published as early as 1939. In the 1950’s, he pioneered dry diets and produced one of the country’s earliest. He is credited with developing a special water-powered paddlewheel catfish hatching trough and special egg hatching baskets. Although not formally educated in biology and fisheries, his insight, motivation, ability to see ahead and concern for the fisheries resources, enabled him to guide and lead Missouri’s highly successful fish culture programs. Albert G. Morris laid the groundwork for today’s successful programs. He is sometimes called the “Father of Modern Day Missouri Fish Culture”. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1987. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Samuel Wilmot Today, nothing exists but memories of the Newcastle Hatchery by Wilmot Creek and a few willow trees that are over a century old. From 1866 until 1914, Samuel Wilmot oversaw the 155 million fish that were hatched and distributed. Due to the decrease in the numbers of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario, Samuel Wilmot took it upon himself to prevent the disappearance of the salmon from the waters. His Newcastle Fish Hatchery started as a small wood structure in 1866 and hatched 15,000 eggs in the spring from fifteen adult salmon. Within two years, Wilmot built a larger hatchery and took the hatched eggs to plant the fry into small streams entering Lake Ontario. As the salmon numbers increased, Samuel Wilmot carried out his rearing trail on other species including whitefish, salmon trout (lake trout), brook trout, pickerel (walleye) and black bass. These fry were mainly distributed in Ontario, but others were shipped as far away as Great Britain. Samuel Wilmot’s success is largely due to the techniques and equipment he developed. By using shallow hatching trays with a steady stream of water, one could see the dead eggs which could be easily removed. Similar trays, such as the Heath Tray used today, is a modified version of Wilmot’s design. Samuel Wilmot’s ingenuity and forethought brought him the honor of having a complete working section of his hatchery put into operation at the “Great International Fisheries Exhibition”, in 1883 in London. Wilmot’s effort to save the Atlantic salmon from the pollution of growing industries is worthy of this honor. His efforts to artificially breed salmon have resulted in a highly successful salmonid culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1987. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed the first U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries on March 8, 1871, by President Ulysses S. Grant. While serving at the Smithsonian Institution for the prior 21 years, Baird displayed great skill in scientific discipline and political know how. As Fish Commissioner, he developed the foundations of fish culture and conservation in the United States. This combination of scientific principles and political awareness enabled him to introduce the art of fish culture with great public and political appeal. During his 16 years s Commissioner he pioneered policy and initiatives and advanced fish culture and other fisheries activities. He initiated both Atlantic and Pacific salmon programs: cross-continental distribution of rainbow and brook trout: introductions of salmon in the Great Lakes in the 1870’s: and the importation of brown trout from Germany and Scotland in 1883. The impact of these programs continues today. Baird’s promotion of resource programs through early political climates has served his successors well. Failing health contributed to Spencer Baird’s retirement in 1887. Today’s fish culture operations were established through roots from the seed of his early stewardship and promotion of resource programs. The Nation is indebted to him for his dedication and commitment. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1988. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Dr. Lauren R. Donaldson, born in Minnesota in 1903, started his fisheries career in 1932. He earned his Doctorate at the University of Washington and in 1987, he was honored with the Universities highest award, the “Alumnus Summa Laude Dignatus” in recognition of his national and international contributions. Lauren R. Donaldson has traveled, lectured and taught worldwide on fish culture matters. His experiments in hybridization and selective breeding of trout and salmon resulted in the famous “Donaldson Rainbow Trout” an especially fast growing, early maturing and prolific egg producing strain. He achieved similar results with salmon. Salmon and trout strains developed by Dr. Donaldson have been introduced throughout the world. These introductions have had a direct success on the economy and diet of both rich and poor nations. Dr. Donaldson developed a research hatchery at the University of Washington where he also performed extensive nutrition studies. These and other studies have improved growth and survival of salmon and trout in governmental and commercial fish farms. Dr. Donaldson, a fine educator, became a counselor, advisor, friend, and inspiration to countless fishery students. He is recognized by governments, universities and professional organizations worldwide. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1987. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

William M. “Bill” Lewis, past President of the American Fisheries Society, received his BS from North Carolina State University (1943) and his MS (1947) and Ph.D. (1949) from Iowa State University. Dr. Lewis joined the faculty of the Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1949, and established the Cooperative Fisheries Laboratory’s graduate training and research program. The Laboratory has emphasized fish culture research, and Bill Lewis published more than 80 technical papers, many related to fish culture. His most noteworthy achievements include early research on fish pathogens and disease control, pioneering work in the cage culture of fishes, and practical production of hybrid sunfish and largemouth bass by the use of prepared diets. Dr. Lewis also conducted research that was the first to successfully combine hydroponic vegetable production with tank culture of fishes. Of his numerous professional achievements, probably the most important is his influence on more than seventy Masters and sixteen Doctoral fisheries professionals who have received their degree under his guidance. These graduates now serve throughout the United Sates and other countries. Dr. Bill Lewis through his fish culture and student advisory activities has influenced the health, well being and recreational activities of the people throughout the world. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1988. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Harmannus “Harry” Westers started his fish culture career in 1958 after his immigration from the Netherlands to the USA in 1955. He has become one of the nation’s leaders in the development and transformation of fish culture from an art into a science. His unique ideas and concepts helped develop many useful formulas necessary to the modern hatchery world. Among them are formulas to determine hatchery production, including oxygen consumption and ammonia production rates. Harry Westers also developed hatchery design concept formulas for flow rates, rearing densities, loading capacities, aeration and degassing columns. He has refined the concept of baffles in flow-through rearing units as a means to manage solid waste. In addition, he developed formulas for fish feeding levels based on metabolic rates and temperature unit (TU) growth rates. Harry Westers has been a staunch leader in encouraging fisheries personnel to take a scientific approach. Many fish culturists relate Harry Westers to bioengineering and he is known worldwide for his hatchery expertise. He is active in professional fisheries organizations and is a past president of the Fish Culture Section Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1988. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Livingston Stone was born in Massachusetts in 1836; he graduated from Harvard in 1857, entered Meadville Theological School, and was ordained a Unitarian Minister. He resigned his clergical duties in 1866 and began a career in fish culture. In 1898, he was recognized as America’s Senior Fish Culturist. In 1870, Stone was one of the founders of the American Fisheries Society, its first secretary and one of the drafters of its constitution. In 1872, Stone was named U.S. Deputy Fish Commissioner and assigned to establish the Baird Hatchery in California. He published the classic fish culture book “Domesticated Trout” the same year and it soon became a standard manual for fish culture. In 1873, he was assigned the task of moving fish across the continent by railroad. Stone early on recognized the interaction between the biological science and fish culture and was the first to recommend and request a trained biologist for hatchery staff. He was an early advocate of preserving salmon runs on both coasts and in 1892 asked the piercing question, “What hope is there for the salmon in the end?” He is one of America’s greatest fish culture pioneers, and an early advocate in establishing the Federal Fish Culture Program. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1989. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Abram Vorhis Tunison, “Abe”, as he was known, was born in Geneva, New York in 1909. He received his B.S. Degree from Cornell University in 1930 and M.S. in 1932. Following graduation, he joined the New York Conservation Department Research Unit at Cortland, New York. While at Cortland, he was largely responsible for establishing its worldwide fish nutrition reputation and primarily responsible for establishing the Cortland Fish Culture Training School. Later, he joined the Federal Government, moved to Washington, D.C., and took charge of the Federal Fish Hatchery Program. His understanding, know-how and philosophies professionalized the hatchery system and emphasized the biological and husbandry aspects. He was later promoted into the Directorate and Secretariat but never forgot his basic roots in fish culture. Abe Tunison was a true pioneer in fish culture raining, fish nutrition and feeding charts. He always worked quietly and effectively, never seeking prominence for himself and was highly respected for his honesty, integrity, and loyalty within and outside the Federal Government and the Congress, his word was bond. He was a professional’s professional and received many honors such as honorary life member of the American Fisheries Society. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1989. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Keen W. Buss was born October 20, 1918, in Pennsylvania. His interest in fisheries started as a boy working on a minnow farm. This interest grew into a Fisheries Degree from Pennsylvania State University in 1952. He began his career as State Fisheries Biologist with the Pennsylvania Fish Commission at the Benner Springs Research Station. He progressed upward through many positions such as Fish Culture Research Biologist, Director of Fish Culture, Chief Aquatic Biologist and Chief of Fisheries. Eventually, he joined the commercial fish industry and then the Mansfield College faculty, Mansfield, Pennsylvania, where he wrote The Fundamentals of Fish Culture and taught fish culture. In his retirement, he continues as a fish culture consultant. In his career, Keen Buss was, and still is, an innovative individual with an active, seeking mind; never satisfied with the present. His life has been a trail of fish culture innovations, concepts, new ideas and techniques. Largely due to his efforts, Pennsylvania emerged into one of the Nation’s leaders in fish culture. He was never one to hold onto his ideas but eagerly shared them with others. He authored or co-authored nearly 100 articles or publications. He was always willing to explain and teach others. Oftentimes, once he ignited the spark, he would step into the shadows and let others take credit for his ideas. His innovation, drive, infectious enthusiasm and love for fisheries were major contributions in the recognition of Fish Culture as a professional science. Keen W. Buss is one of modern times fish culture leaders. He is an inspiration to fish culturists. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1990. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

James Edwin “Jimmy” Camper was born in Virginia in 1927 and attended Lehigh and Berea Colleges. He joined the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1951 and in 1958 was one of the first graduates of the Eastern Fish Disease Laboratory Hatchery Biologist Course in Leetown, West Virginia. He was then assigned as the first Hatchery Disease Biologist in the Southeast where he served until his death in 1989. His early years were difficult as he had to convince hatchery managers of the worthiness of fish health. He did this through his innate ability of diplomacy rather than power of authority. His career was marked with subtle diplomacy and quiet persistence. His application of these skills enabled him to institute a total understanding and acceptance of a regionwide fish health program, when the advice of a fish doctor was not often sought or wanted. He became the foremost authority on fish health in the Southeast. Jimmy Camper was a person of the highest principles and earned the respect of Federal, State and commercial fish producers. His personal dedication, expertise and personality instilled confidence in Hatchery Managers. He was a humble person who respected others and frequently stepped aside letting others be recognized. His impact to fish culture is profound. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1990. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Robert “Bob” G. Piper was born in New York in 1930 and received is B.S. Degree from Cornell University in 1952. Following his graduation he worked in the commercial fish industry and joined the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1956. He was the first Hatchery Disease Biologist and was stationed at the Eastern Fish Disease Laboratory in Leetown, West Virginia. In 1958 he transferred to LaCrosse, Wisconsin; and in 1963, to the Fish Genetics Laboratory, Beulah, Wyoming. In 1967 he transferred to the Bozeman Fish Culture Development Center, became Director in 1973, and retired in 1985. Bob developed a workable flow index concept to determine fish hatchery carrying capacity. His concept is widely used at fish hatcheries throughout the U.S.A., Canada, and other countries. Bob Piper has published many practical fish culture papers and served as Editor-in-Chief of the modern “bible” of fish culture, Fish Hatchery Management. This manual has proved popular throughout the world and has undergone numerous printings, providing practical guidance to thousands. Because of his activities, he has received numerous awards. Teaching fish culture courses has been a special part of Bob’s career. He has taught countless courses to hundreds of students. He is a friend and is known and appreciated at all levels by students, educators, administrators, and fish culturists everywhere. Bob Piper is a certified Fishery Scientist and past President of the American Fisheries Society’s Fish Culture Section. Bob’s boundless enthusiasm, optimism, and sensitivity to others has had a positive impact upon numerous students, fellow employees, associates, as well as other fishery scientists throughout the fishery community. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1990. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Davis, 32nd President (1932-33) of the American Fisheries Society and a legendary fisheries scientist of the early 20th Century, pioneered major advancements in both fish culture and disease research. He is credited with refining many fish culture practices and developing scientific protocols for the detection, diagnosis, treatment and control of fish diseases. His distinguished career, spanning more than 40 years, culminated in 1953 with publication of his most famous works, Culture and Diseases of Game Fish, a 332-page treatise that is probably the most widely-used single reference in the history of freshwater fish culture. Another acclaimed reference was his 1938 handbook, Methods of Conducting Stream and Lake Surveys. A talented writer, his works were further enhanced by his skill both with pen and camera. His drawings and photos are still in use. His goal was to inform- not to impress. A former zoology professor at the University of Florida, Dr. Davis became the chief of Aquaculture Investigations with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, retiring in 1945 at the U.S. Fisheries Experimental Station at Leetown, West Virginia. He became a then chief pathologist for the Oregon State Game Commission and concluded his research career at the University of California at Berkeley. He conceived the first formal Federal fisheries training program in 1941 at Leetown. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1991. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Stanislas Francis Snieszko was born in Krakow, Poland in 1902, immigrated to the United States and died in1984. His career spanned several decades. His unparalleled contributions to fish health made him a worldwide figure. He recognized fundamental needs for fish health practitioners and initiated training and extension services for the field worker. He nurtured scientists with a practical goal-oriented direction. Dr. Snieszko was a positive influence on administrators and legislators obtaining research funding and regulatory measures protecting fish husbandry. Because of his interest and persistence, the Leetown, West Virginia National Fish Health Laboratory grew to worldwide prominence. “Doc” or “Stan” as he was respectively and affectionately called, published more than 200 scientific papers and texts about fish health. His publications are widely known and still used worldwide. The increased productivity of today’s intensive fish culture can be attributed to the efforts of Stanislas Snieszko, his students and proteges. The American Fisheries Society, because of his contributions, established the S.F. Snieszko Distinguished Service Award honoring worthy individuals in fish health. He was also the first American Fisheries Society Certified Fish Pathologist. Dr. Snieszko was the recipient of many, many awards which included Distinguished Service awards from the American Fisheries Society, Wildlife Disease Association and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He was also awarded an Honorary Doctorate from West Virginia University and many other Honorary Memberships and Excellence Awards. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1991. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Arden J. Trandahl was the first Curator and Director of the D.C. Booth Historic Fish Hatchery and Museum at Spearfish, South Dakota. As an employee of the Fish and Wildlife Service for over 30 years he held numerous positions including Director of the Fish Cultural Development Center at Spearfish as well as Chief, Branch of Technology, Washington, D.C. Among Arden’s most significant accomplishments was his recognition of the historical importance of fish culture and the related artifacts and equipment. A visit to the museum, established at his insistence, is a nostalgic trip down memory lane. From a modest beginning, the museum grew into a facility of national significance and prominence. Arden is considered to be the “father” of the Fish Culture Section movement within the American Fisheries Society and as such was the first President of the Section. His efforts firmly re-established aquaculture as a major entity and influence within the Society. The Fish Culture Hall of Fame was also originally a concept of Arden’s and he effectively promoted the idea into reality. Since that time many notables have been formally recognized and inducted. His efforts to promote fish culture within the American Fisheries Society as well as the general public is without peer. Because of his perseverance and patience, the historical importance of fish husbandry in America’s development and the contribution of those who pioneered the art of fish culture have been documented and will be remembered. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1991. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Larry de la Bretonne, Jr., was born in 1943 and died in 1991. He spent more than fifteen years in the Louisiana Extension Service. During his career in Extension, he was a leader and gained not only a statewide, but international reputation as an aquaculturist. As an international leader, he was known worldwide as an expert in crawfish culture. He was also a world leader in extension work relating to catfish and alligator culture. Larry de la Bretonne had a deep appreciation for all aquaculturists and an uncanny ability to communicate highly technical knowledge and present it to all levels, from administrators to pond bank workers. He was a person who eagerly shared his knowledge. He was a natural teacher, able to communicate the importance of fisheries to any audience from school children to elected officials. He was an international traveler and advisor to countries such as China, Guatemala and Guyana. His influence was worldwide. His many awards include the Conservation Award of The National Wildlife Federation, The Distinguished Service Award of the National Association of County Agents and The Gamma Delta Extension Award. He was a member of many fish culture related organizations and served on many National, State and local committees such as the Extension Priority Working Committee. Larry de la Bretonne loved fisheries. His love, dedication and hard work made a difference in Louisiana, the United States and the world. The world and its people are better because of him. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1992. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Roger E. Burrows was born in Dubuque, Iowa, and moved to Seattle, Washington, at the age of seven. He attended grade and high school in the Seattle area. He entered the University of Washington and received a degree in Zoology in 1934. He died in 1980. After graduation he accepted a job with the federal government doing stream surveys in eastern Washington. He eventually went to work at national fish hatcheries in Dexter, New Mexico: Crede, Colorado: and Quilcene, Washington. While at Quilcene in 1938 he started work with Pacific salmon and fish disease control. He transferred to the Mullen, Idaho, hatchery in 1940 and later to Leavenworth, Washington. At Leavenworth, Roger started a fish culture school for managers and fish culturists. He also started to investigate practical salmon diets. In 1951 he established the Salmon Cultural Laboratory. The laboratory was moved to Abernathy, Washington, in 1961 where he retired in 1971 after 37 years of service. Roger Burrows had a broad, encompassing career in fish culture having worked on diets, induced maturation, pond design, egg enumeration and incubation, effects of wastes on fingerlings, aeration, recalculation and practical biofiltration of hatchery water. He had a vast practical and theoretical knowledge of hatchery operational needs. Roger authored or co-authored about fifty publications reporting his findings. He was recognized with many awards including the Distinguished Service Award of Excellence of the Fish and Wildlife Service and the American Fisheries Society Award of Excellence. He was listed in the Who’s Who of America, Who’s Who of the West and the Biographical Dictionary of England. His contributions laid the groundwork and stimulated thinking for many others. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1993. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Arthur A. (Art) Oehmcke was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1913, and graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1937 with a degree in Ecology. He earned a Masters in Public Administration from Harvard University in 1953. His first employment was with the Wisconsin Conservation Department in 1937 as a Biologist’s Aide at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. He was promoted to positions of increasing responsibility such as Field Supervisor, Assistant Director of Fish Management, Director of the West Central District and Director of the North West District. He retired in 1978 after 41 years of exceptional service to the State of Wisconsin and the fisheries community. Art Oehmcke always had a curiosity and desire to do things better. This characteristic carried into his work. He was instrumental in implementing new fishery techniques and methods. The fish culture ideas, methods, techniques and improvements in the fish hatchery setting brought muskellunge (musky) culture to a new plateau. Art also introduced new concepts into musky management using the hatchery product he improved. It is impossible to calculate the hours of public recreation he has helped provide. He has received wide recognition earning many awards including induction into the Fresh Water Fishing Hall of Fame in Hayward, Wisconsin, in 1982. His direction and improvements in the musky program is Wisconsin earned him a national reputation as a musky expert and the title Dr. Musky. Art has willingly passed along his knowledge through training others, publications and personal consultations. This is typical of Art Oehmcke who has dedicated his life to improving things for the public. His life is an inspiration and an example to follow. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1993. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Charlie E. Smith began his fisheries career in 1961 at the Western Fish Nutrition Laboratory operated by the U.S. Fish Technology Canter in 1968, achieved Center Director and retired in 1993. He graduated from Walla Walla College, Washington, and completed graduate work in histology, microbiology and pathology at Montana State University. Charlie Smith has been an active member of the American Fisheries Society in Fish Health, Bioengineering, Fish Culture and Fisheries History. He is a certified fish pathologist and a member of the European Association of Fish Pathologists. He is widely known both nationally and internationally as an outstanding fish pathologist. In addition to fish pathology, Charlie has been involved in research and development in fish husbandry techniques, hatchery design and operation, oxygen supplementation, fish strain introduction, fish diseases and fish nutrition. Charlie has willingly passed on his knowledge and know how to others. He has authored or co-authored almost 100 publications dealing with various aspects of fish disease, nutrition, loading capacities, water reconditioning, oxygen and fish husbandry practices. In addition he is widely known by teaching students at many locations throughout the country. Charlie Smith has left a legacy most fishery workers never achieve. His friendly, gentle manner and concern for others is outstanding. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1993. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Donovan Dean Moss was born February 28, 1926 in Indiana. He earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Fish Culture in 1949 from Auburn University and was awarded his Masters Degree in Fish Management in 1950. He subsequently attended the University of Georgia and in 1962, earned a Doctorate in Zoology (Fisheries). Dr. Moss has a wide and varied background with field experience, teaching, research and administration. His assignments have ranged from field biologist to Associate Director of the International Center for Aquaculture (ICA) at Auburn University from 1967 to 1989. Prior to going to Auburn he worked four years in Indonesia and helped establish a department of fisheries at the country’s leading agriculture university. During his Auburn tenure, he promoted the establishment of aquaculture as an innovative alternative to traditional agricultural subsistence production. He personally undertook 90 short-term work assignments in 41 countries. Dr. Moss served on the Board of Directors, and as Chairman of the Aquaculture Pond Dynamics Support Program, of U.S. Aid for International Development. He was President of the Fish Culture Section 1977-1978. Since his retirement, Dr. Moss continues to advise the ICA and to accept consulting assignments abroad. Dr. Moss has published 50 articles and reports on his international development work. Dr. Moss quietly and methodically educated people to the way of fish culture. His easy-going manner, personableness and concern for the welfare of persons all over the world have won him affection from many friend and colleagues. His concern for people, knowledge and willingness to share have undoubtedly changed the standard of living, health and welfare of many people worldwide. Donovan Dean Moss is a dedicated educator, respected and admired fish culturist, leader and humanitarian. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1995. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Clyde Delmer Adams was born October 24, 1902, in Peacham, Vermont, and was educated at Peacham Academy. On June 7, 1921, Adams was selected as an apprentice Fish Culturist at the U.S. Fish Hatchery, St. Johnsbury, Vermont. With St. Johnsbury as home station, he was given temporary assignments in Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, Vermont, Glacier National Park, and Yellowstone National Park. He transferred in 1931 to Rogue River, Oregon, and in 1938 to Clackamas, Oregon. In 1940 he was placed in charge of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery on the Columbia River, and successfully managed it until his retirement in 1962. During his management, Adams increased the production at Spring Creek three-fold operating one o the nation’s most successful salmon cultural operations. During his tenure he developed several pieces of fish culture equipment including automatic feeders and sorters. He eagerly shared his ideas and innovations. Culturists from throughout the northwest and nation visited with and counseled with Adams. In the northwest, he became synonymous with salmon culture and the Spring Creek Hatchery and was known as Mr. Salmon. Clyde Adams’ 40 year career started when most culturists were non-scientific and thought of culture as more of an art than a science. He was one of the rare individuals who provided a bridge between the art and science of fish culture. He helped move fish culture into a combination of art and science including nutrition, feeds and feeding techniques and pathology. Clyde D. Adams epitomizes the innovative mind and practicality of the fish culturist. He was widely recognized by representatives of both state and federal agencies. Though not a state employee, the State of Washington in 1959 named him Number One Fish Farmer. On his retirement in 1962 he was honored with the Department of the Interior Meritorious Service Award. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Charles Grandison Atkins was born in New Sharon, Maine, on January 19,1841, and graduated from Bowdoin College. He moved to Green Bay, Wisconsin, taught school and returned to Maine. In 1867, he and Nathan Foster became the first State of Maine Fish Commissioners. He began fish propagation this year with landlocked salmon eggs. In 1870, Atkins purchased 8,000 Atlantic salmon eggs for $44.80 per thousand from the Canadian government. Eventually 7,000 were raised to stocking sizes and released. His concern with the cost of eggs resulted in his developing methods that reduced costs to $18.09 per thousand in 1871 and then to $2.00 per thousand in 1874, a remarkable feat. He was the first to publish the “dry method” of spawning salmon in 1871. That same year he described in great detail the embryological development of salmon eggs. In 1872, Spencer Baird, the first U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries, hired Charles Atkins. His federal career lasted 48 years until his retirement at age 80 in 1920. He was primarily known for his work with Atlantic salmon but he also worked with cod, flounder, lobster, smelt, shad, white perch and striped bass. Atkins was the first one to tag Atlantic salmon in 1872 and determined life history information previously unknown. He published more than 100 papers and reports, and wrote at least another 100 that were not published. In 1908, he was awarded $150 in gold for his paper at the Fourth International Fishery Congress in Washington, D.C. Charles G. Atkins was a meticulous scientist and inventor of fish cultural equipment and techniques. He recorded his observations in great detail illustrating them with his own drawings. He was also a proficient photographer leaving hundreds of carefully catalogued glass plate negatives. He was a fish culture pioneer who blazed the trails for others to follow. Charles G. Atkins laid groundwork for modern fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Robert David “Dave” Bishop was born May 16, 1934 and earned a BS in Biology from the University of Tennessee in 1960. He began his career with the Tennessee Game and Fish Commission as a part time employee in 1958 and full time in 1960. The commission was later renamed the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency in 1974. As part of the reorganization Bishop was promoted to a regional administrative position. Dave Bishop is well known as a pioneer in the development of the striped bass x white bass hybrid. He initiated successful hybridization and survival in 1965. Bishop had no hatchery rearing facilities so he utilized an isolated reservoir pond and reared the hybrids. In the fall the first crop was harvested. The success in hybridization, rearing, survival, growth, and angler enthusiasm prompted Bishop to continue his experimentation. In the following years the striped bass x white bass hybrid program made remarkable progress in spawning techniques with Dave Bishop and associates using their innovation and diligence. This was accomplished in spite of small budgets, inadequate equipment and facilities. It was his upbeat driving force and motivation that made the program successful. Many culturists and fishery managers consider Dave Bishop the father of the striped bass x white bass hybrid. The techniques and methods developed by Bishop were eagerly shared with others. This has led to the hybrid being extensively used both as sport fish as well as a commercial species. Dave Bishop made the first technical presentation about the hybrid in 1966 and 1967. His concepts and methods are used widely throughout the country. He received numerous awards and has been an AFS Certified Fisheries Scientist since 1971. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Fred P. Meyer was born August 15, 1931. He received his B.A. degree from the University of Northern Iowa, a M.S. in Parasitology, and Ph.D. degree in Parasitology and Fisheries from Iowa State University. Dr. Fred Meyer, now retired, served 30 years with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Starting as a parasitologist at the Stuttgart, Arkansas Fish Farming Experimental Station, he ended his career as Director of the prestigious National Fisheries Research Center, LaCrosse, Wisconsin. He also served as Chief of the Fish Farming Experimental Station and Assistant Director of the Warmwater Fish Cultural Laboratory. He is recognized worldwide as an authority on the recognition and treatment of fish diseases, on fish kills caused by environmental factors and on the regulatory processes involved in obtaining approval to permit use of drugs or pesticides. Dr. Fred Meyer is the author of four books on fish diseases and fish health management. He has published over 125 papers in various publications. His innate ability to communicate with both the scientist and pond bank culturist is reflected in both his written and verbal communication. Because of his extensive knowledge, Fred Meyer has been appointed to many special task forces, workgroups and teams, including foreign assignments. He has received many prestigious awards including the Department of the Interior Distinguished Service Medal, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Meritorious Service Award, the American Fisheries Society Snieszko Distinguished Service Award, the Catfish Farmers of America Distinguished Service Award, and many other citations from governmental, industry, and professional organizations. Dr. Fred Meyer is a distinguished scientist, a gentleman’s gentleman, and has earned universal respect within and without the fish culture community. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Leroy “Roy” Sorenson was born July 20, 1920, and began work with the Pennsylvania Fish Commission in 1939. He spent several years learning hatchery practices as he was assigned increasingly complex projects with both warm-water and cool-water fishes. In 1959 he started experimenting with muskellunge culture. Prior to this time a hatch of 5% for muskellunge eggs and a 15% hatch for northern pike was the norm. He was determined to correct existing serious problems. Leroy Sorenson devised techniques to reduce the loss of eggs and broodstock. He developed spawning methods, and refined sperm testing and broodstock handling. From spawning improvements he moved to reducing cannibalism, new health treatments and better nutrition. His methods increased the survival to over 75% for seven-inch fingerlings, a dramatic step in muskellunge and northern pike culture. A major reference, The Artificial Propagation of Esocid Fish in Pennsylvania was published by Leroy Sorenson and co-workers in 1966. It was one of the most useful fish culture publications at the time and was an excellent up to date reference for esocid culture. It laid the groundwork for later studies in nutrition, diet development and disease treatments. It was instrumental in changing esocid culture from extensive pond culture to intensive culture under controlled conditions. Leroy “Roy” Sorenson was a fish culturists determined to figure out how to do things better. His “there must be a way” attitude and willingness to share his knowledge through training or advice has given him esteem among fish culturists. His remarkable record and work was recognized in the 1960’s when he was nominated for the prestigious American Motors Award. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Seth Way was born in 1903. He began employment with the Kansas Fish and Game Commission in 1922 and retired in 1968, a period of 46 years. In 1926, he was appointed Manager at the Pratt, Kansas, State Hatchery, a position he held until he retired. He died in 1978. His professional career focused on the culture of channel catfish. Seth Way’s observations, mechanical ingenuity, and understanding the need to improve led to his development by 1927 of a channel catfish incubation system. The basic design, published in1927, is still in use today and is the accepted method of catfish egg incubation in state, federal and private hatcheries. Early on he recognized improved nutrition was essential for large-scale successful channel catfish production. He experimented with many common and not so common feeds and ingredients. Seth Way’s name was synonymous with fishing in Kansas. He was one of the most widely known Fish and Game employees in Kansas and elsewhere, especially in the warm-water fish community. He was a dedicated warm-water fish culturist who trained or advised untold numbers of beginning and advanced fish growers to understand the demands of imitating and assisting Mother Nature’s process. He helped organize the Kansas Commercial Fish Growers Association serving as a bridge between the state and private interests. Seth Way had little formal education but in the sense of innovation and practicality he excelled. The Kansas Wildlife Federation named Seth Way the “Wildlife Conservationist of the Year” in 1966. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1996. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Clarence F. Pautzke was born in 1907, a native of Auburn, Washington. He attended the University of Washington graduating in 1931 with a degree in Aquatic Biology. His enthusiasm, energy and drive during his University days won him recognition as an all American football player. These personal qualities were evident throughout his life. Soon after graduation he joined the Washington Department of Game and became head of its fisheries program. He was responsible for originating and developing their nationally recognized steelhead restoration program. Clarence F. Pautzke was the driving force behind steelhead diet development, rearing regimes and techniques. His guidance helped the Washington Department achieve a high quality stocking product with maximum survival. The cost of these programs was significant, and Pautzke toured the state speaking to sportsmen’s groups and any others that would listen, securing their support for special funding. His infectious enthusiasm and seemingly boundless energy, the success of the steelhead program, and other innovative programs soon made him a hero and led to national recognition. He was elected and served as President of the American Fisheries Society in 1956-57. In 1957, he left the Department of Game to become assistant director of the state’s Department of Fisheries, where he rejuvenated the salmon restoration program. In 1960, when Alaska achieved statehood, he was recruited to become Alaska’s Assistant Commissioner of Fish and Game, responsible for the stewardship of Alaska’s immense fishery resources. In 1961, President Kennedy appointed him Fish and Wildlife Service Commissioner where his talents were put to work on national and international fisheries problems. During this period, he encouraged the adoption of his steelhead methodology to the rearing an Atlantic salmon in the Craig Brook (Maine) National Fish Hatchery, at that time the only major hatchery producing Atlantic salmon. Near the end of the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson, he served briefly as Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior. He died unexpectedly while undergoing surgery. Clarence F. Pautzke achieved the highest positions in his profession, and deserves recognition for his initiative and creativity in the groundbreaking Washington State steelhead culture and restoration program. He was an inspiration and leader to fish culturists, fish managers and administrators. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1997. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Joseph “Joe” McCraren never let such conventional wisdom as “It can’t be done” or “that’s an impossible dream” limit his options. “Let’s try it.” “We can find a way.” “That’s a great idea; when can we start?” These were his enthusiastic responses to good ideas. He always touched everyone he met in a positive, unique way. Joe joined the Fish and Wildlife Service following his graduation from the University of Arizona. Throughout his career at such places as Tishomingo (OK) National Fish Hatchery, Dexter (NM), San Marcos (TX) Fish Cultural Development Center, Leetown National Fisheries Center and the Washington Office, Joe constantly searched for a better way of doing business. Many of our “standard’ methods of handling and hauling fish originated from Joe’s practical experience and desire to “find a better way”. Joe’s leadership, experience and creative talents eventually led him to the directors chair at the San Marcos Fish Culture Development Center, Head of the Division of Technical Development, Aquaculture Extension Coordinator and Secretary of the Joint Subcommittee in Aquaculture (JSA). He was a co-author of the “Fish Culture Bible”, Fish Culture Management and he published numerous scientific and technical papers on topics from general fish culture to fish health to fish nutrition. He contributed to the writings of others by serving on the editorial board of the Progressive Fish Culturist. He was active within the America Fisheries Society, serving on the numerous committees and becoming President of the Fish Culture Section. After his “retirement” in 1988, Joe became Executive Director of the U.S. Trout Farmers Association. Under his leadership, USTFA sought and received regulatory reform in fish health, bird depredation, use of therapeutic drugs, quality assurance and export-import issues. These efforts guided USTFA into a prolonged period of growth, credibility and expansion of influence. He will best be remembered, however, as the “Father of a United Aquaculture Industry” in the United States. More than any other individual, Joe had the vision and the ability to bring to reality the concept of “One Industry-One Vote”. The National Aquaculture Association was subsequently established, Joe became its voice and the United States aquaculture was changed forever. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1998. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Robert “Bob” E. Stevens is best described as having an inquisitive mind and wanting to try something new, improve techniques and inspire. During the early 1960s he developed a procedure for spawning striped bass using human chorionic gonadotropin. This important contribution was the most important development in striped bass culture technology during the 1960’s and 1970’s. Following the success of striped bass in the Santee-Cooper Lakes in South Carolina, interest in striped bass intensified. Several Southern states began trying to establish fishable populations in reservoirs. One of the biggest obstacles was the supply of adult fish and transportation difficulties. Stevens’ development of striped bass hormone spawning overcame these obstacles allowing fry to be hatched and stocked or reared to fingerlings. The hormone spawning process was the key making it possible for inland states to establish striped populations. Stevens also hatched the first striped bass x white bass fry using hormone spawned striped bass. The hybrid he created, striped bass x white bass, opened new doors for fish managers and commercial fish producers. The hybrid fills a niche in special waters and does well raised commercially for food fish. It is widely accepted in many parts of the United States. Bob Stevens was instrumental in creating and organizing the Striped Bass Subcommittee of the Southern Division of AFS and he served as first chairman. He was the leading authority on landlocked striped bass and willingly shared his knowledge with others. His career ranged from hatchery work to Chief of Fishery Research of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He worked for the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, private industry and the National Marine Fisheries Service. He received a B.S. from William and Mary and a Ph.D. from N.C. State. Stevens has received wide acclaim and many awards including C.W. “Doc” Watson award for the Southern Division AFS, to induction into the Striped Bass Research Foundation Hall of Fame. His contributions to the development and progress of Fish Culture are significant. He truly is a contributor to the betterment of mankind. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1998. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section

Otto W. Tiemeier‘s teaching and research career spanned almost 30 years at Kansas State University. He was not only an excellent teacher, but also a practical research professor. He was able to weave excellent classroom techniques and research together giving his students a special experience in higher learning. He began to study stunted catfish problems and supplemental feeding and this led to a strong interest in fish nutrition. Eventually he obtained construction and operations funds for the Turtle Creek Research Laboratory. The lab was operated cooperatively with the University system, Conservation Commission, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and Commercial Fisheries. The laboratory provided some of the earliest data about nutrition, digestion, metabolism, genetic selection behavior of channel catfish. The laboratory was a training facility for students not only in fisheries but also in feed milling, endocrinology and zoology. He also published many, many useful articles about culture and nutrition of catfish. He received numerous awards during his career and trained many graduate and undergraduate students. Due to his training many of his students have achieved recognition in their careers. Many have advanced to high levels in State, Federal, Commercial and University positions. Otto Tiemeier was a friend, consular and inspiration to his students. He has left a lasting legacy. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1998. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Ralph J. Tritt When you first examine the career of Ralph J. Tritt, you wonder where was the great accomplishment? Ralph’s accomplishment was to instill spirit and ethic in other people, especially young fishery biologists and culturists. He was a self-motivated, practical and dedicated individual. He treated his co-workers, family, his job, the fishery resource, his hatchery, agency and the public fishery consumer with the highest dignity and respect. His example was a vital and positive growing experience for the many young people who trained under or worked with him in his 32-year career at the Chattahoochee National Fish Hatchery. Early on he recognized the most important asset of fish culture were the young biologists of who depended the future. Ralph made it his lifetime responsibility to do his utmost to share with fellow fish culturists and promising young biologists everything he knew about fish and fish culture. He had a reputation of being calm, steady, reassuring and having practical advice to resolve a serious problem. In summary, Ralph dedicated 32 years of his life to improving fish culture in the United States. With uncharacteristic determination, persistence and modesty, Ralph taught others the science and art of fish culture. His tireless and unselfish efforts produced a cadre of talented fish culturists whose leadership and contributions continue to benefit fish culture. One of these professionals is his daughter, Deborah Burger, who followed in her footsteps and today manages the Chattahoochee Forest National Fish Hatchery. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1998. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

James “Jim” W. Kahrs established the internationally known Osage Catfisheries, Inc. in 1953. He operated and guided its growth until retirement in 1996. His family has since continued the operation. Since its beginning, Osage Catfisheries has branched into specialty fish such as paddlefish and sturgeon and many other species. His innovative skills enabled Osage Catfisheries to incorporate and develop technical expertise and stay abreast and ahead of new fish culture techniques. Using his innovativeness, he developed worldwide markets. At least ten other nations have received fish from Osage Catfisheries. Jim Kahrs has not only provided fish products, but has willingly exported his vast technical and practical fish culture knowledge to help both established and developing nations. Jim was instrumental in organizing the Missouri Aquaculture Association and has been a leader in the Catfish Farmers of America and the National Aquaculture Association. Not only commercial but State, Federal and University fishery workers admire, respect and have counted on Jim’s advice, counsel and help during their careers. He has had a positive influence on national and World Aquaculture. His foreign activities have fostered and developed a positive international image of the United States. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 1999. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Laurie G. Fowler worked for the Abernathy Salmon Culture Technology Center (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) in Longview, Washington (1961 through 1991) as a Supervisory Fishery Biologist and Fish Nutritionist. During his career, Mr. Fowler distinguished himself in the field of nutrition of cultured fishes, and he contributed several noteworthy peer-reviewed publications describing new diet formulations. His most notable achievement was the recommendation for an improved dry feed in the late 1960’s: the Abernathy Dry Salmon Diet. This Diet was formulated, developed and improved under the guidance, oversight, and innovation of Laurie Fowler through the 1970’s and 1980’s and that contribution is the basis for his nomination into the National Fish Culture Hall of Fame. Laurie Fowler’s ingenuity led to many improvements of the Abernathy Dry Salmon Feed over the course of his career. In collaboration with Roger Burrows, Laurie senior-authored the manuscript that described his fish nutrition breakthrough in a classic paper, “The Abernathy Salmon Diet”, published in the Progressive Fish-Culturist in April, 1971. The Abernathy Diet remains a well-known staple diet among culturists to this day and has been a forerunner for many of the dry diets and has been cited as being the basis for development of current dry pellet formulations produced for salmon throughout the world. Laurie’s pioneering research on the Abernathy Dry Salmon Feed is most deserving of recognition by the Hall of Fame Committee – it is truly one of the most magnificent contributions within the field of fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 2000. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

John Emil Halver is reverently known by fish nutrition scientists throughout the world as “The Father of Fish Nutrition”, being the first scientist during the 1950’s to make fish nutrition a science. In 1949, Dr. Halver showed vitamin B12 was the fish anti-anemic factor H, which enabled the formulation of the test diets to classify and quantitate vitamin, protein, amino acid and fatty acid requirements of fish. He developed the first truly vitamin-free diet for salmonids and this diet formulation, called H440 in the 1973 NRC bulletin, has since been modified and used by other investigators. Dr. Halver served for many years as the Head of the Western Fish Nutrition Laboratory for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and thereafter as a professor at the school of Fisheries of the University of Washington where he is presently Professor Emeritus. Since 1978 he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences. His research activities have been in basic and applied comparative fish nutrition, physiology and metabolism of nutrients required or utilized by aquatic animals. Major research efforts have been in vitamin C forms, stability, efficacy, and affects upon fish health with respect to resistance to bacterial and viral diseases, trauma and stress. Dr. Halver has also been active in research training, technology transfer and international cooperative research institute development. He is on the Executive Committee of the International Network of Feedstuffs Information Centers, representing activities in fish feedstuffs and fish feed formulations. He is the author of many scientific papers and the editor of the book “Fish Nutrition”. The research activities of Dr. Halver have undoubtedly been the basis for the development of fish nutrition as a science. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 2000. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Edward J. McLeary. There are many fish culturists who practice the art and science of fish culture; some develop improvements in the methods of fish culture; but, there are very few who revolutionize the field and change it forever. Ed McLeary, founder of Troutlodge, Inc., is one of the very few individuals who have revolutionized fish culture. Trout farming, world-wide is different today from what it was in 1945 when Ed established his first fish farm on the headwaters of rocky Ford Creek, near Soap Lake, Washington. Many of the fish culture improvements are innovations that he developed. These include providing trout eggs world-wide at any time of the year, using oxygen to ensure delivery of live trout, selective breeding of trout and improving the production of sterile crosses and all female eggs. Many highly valued characteristics and strains of trout were developed at Ed’s Troutlodge facilities. Born in Wyoming, September 5, 1918, Ed became a trout angler at an early age. While serving in the Air Force he learned to fly and later taught aeronautical subjects at Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA. Learning about trout farming from one of his students, Ed became involved with the trout egg business, using his flight experience in later years to transport eggs to customers in the U.S. and Europe. After the war, Ed, his wife Lois, and their three children established a family business that soon became the world’s largest supplier of trout eggs. Without his contributions, the consistent supply of a uniform, high quality product to restaurants, home kitchens, catch out ponds, and other fishing waters of our Nation and the world would not be possible. Fish culturists around the world in both the public and private sector continue to reap the benefits of Ed’s work. He stands tall among those few individuals who have made the world a better place to work and live. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota, 2000. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society.

Robert C. Summerfelt has had teaching and research appointments at several universities, most recently at Iowa State University. Also, from 1966 to 1976, he was with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as leader of the Oklahoma Cooperative Fishery Research Unit. Dr. Summerfelt has been an active member of the American Fisheries Society since 1959. He has been the author and co-author of 186 publications and reports and editor or co-editor of two books. He has also been an invited speaker at innumerable international, national, regional and state conferences. His area of competence includes lake aeration, reservoir fishery management, telemetric tracking of fish, fish diseases, physiology, and aquaculture. The Fish Culture Section of the American Fisheries Society recognize him particularly for numerous and original contributions to the development of walleye culture, which has encompassed all life stages of walleye from first hatch to the production of food fish. He solicited a large and diverse cadre of contributors, and was organizer and editor of the Walleye Culture Manual, a comprehensive, 415-page book on walleye culture, and for this book he also contributed many chapters and case studies. Furthermore, Dr. Summerfelt has had a positive impact on the education of many students. He has taught a diversity of university classes, including aquaculture, and been advisor to hundreds of undergraduates and major professor for 44 graduate students. The research of his graduate students has involved many species and topics, including pond, cage, and intensive culture systems. His former students, who nominated him for this award, are university professors, administrators and biologists in state and federal fisheries agencies, and in the aquaculture industry. His enthusiasm and passion for research has been an inspiration to his students and professional colleagues. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society, 2001.

Robert Wayne Thoesen began his career with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the Eagle Nest Fish Cultural Station, in Northern New Mexico in 1952. He worked hard to develop improved fish culture methods and distribution techniques for many different species of fish. A great number of these developments are still in use in fish culture and fish distribution today. By the time he arrived at his third field station, he recognized the importance of fish health propagation programs and developed one of the first fish cultural laboratories for diagnosing diseases. During his assignment as manager of the Cortland In-Service Training School, Mr. Thoesen developed new salmonid diets and coauthored several papers on photoperiod manipulation to control spawning times of trout. While serving as Assistant Regional Supervisor for Fisheries in Albuquerque, New Mexico, he standardized warm and cold water distribution equipment using elliptical tanks. He planned and coordinated the first fixed-wing aerial stocking of trout and warm water species into Lake Powell. These efforts led to efficient transportation of large numbers and weights of fish. In addition, his efforts to encourage partnerships led to the development of recreational fishing programs with the White Mountain Apache Tribe. Mr. Thoesen contributed to the development and construction of many Fish and Wildlife Service fish hatcheries that operate in support of the Colorado River fishery programs. He inspired many younger employees to get a college degree because he knew that having trained Biologists would be important for the advancement of fish culture. Developing and motivating a new generation of fish culturists may have been Mr. Thoesen’s greatest contribution to fish culture. Robert Thoesen dedicated 33 years of his life to the National Fish Hatchery System and to improving fish culture, fish nutrition, fish health and fish distribution in the United States. With determination, persistence, and modesty, Mr. Thoesen taught others the art and science of fish culture. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society, 2001.

Bobby D. Combs began his career with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the Convict Creek Experiment Station in Bishop, California in 1950. Serving first as a fishery research biologist, he transferred to the Salmon Cultural Laboratory at Entiat, Washington in 1953 and began work on Chinook and sockeye salmon diets using slaughterhouse waste products, scrap fish, and some fish and vegetable meals. These diets were eventually utilized throughout the salmon hatcheries until the introduction of pelleted feeds. He introduced additional studies at Entiat using controlled light systems to accelerate the maturation of spawning adult sockeye salmon and determined temperature tolerances for developing salmon eggs. In 1961, the research programs and staff at the Entiat Laboratory were transferred to the Abernathy Salmon Culture Laboratory, Longview, Washington, where Mr. Combs was promoted to Assistant Laboratory Director. He led research programs in determining the feasibility of recycling water for fish culture using biological filters to remove waste products. His efforts produced a full-sized system that became the prototype for recycle hatcheries throughout the United States and Canada and later in foreign countries. In 1971, the role of the Abernathy facility was expanded as part of the Division of Fish Hatcheries, renamed the Abernathy Salmon Cultural Development Center, and Mr. Combs was appointed as the first Director. Over the next few years he served the international community with trips to South Korea where he helped develop special salmon diets and Hungary where he helped design a large water recycle system for their fishery research programs.
Mr. Combs’ early contributions to adult maturation and temperature thresholds for egg development paved the way for more efficient propagation of salmon. His later contributions to water recycle systems to propagate fish under controlled environmental conditions was a real breakthrough and led to the use of these systems worldwide.
Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society. 2004.

James W. Avault, Jr. was born 20 May 1935 in East St. Louis, IL. He earned a B.S. in Agriculture from the University of Missouri in 1961. While an undergraduate, he was introduced to the discipline of aquaculture by working summers in Federal fish hatcheries in Florida, Louisiana and Kentucky. His graduate studies were at Auburn University, receiving a M.S. and Ph.D. in 1963 and 1966, respectively. He began his professional career at Louisiana State University in 1966, progressing through the ranks of Assistant, Associate and Full Professor.
During his 30-year tenure at LSU, Dr. Avault taught many aquatic courses, several of which he developed. He was the mentor for 17 Ph.D. and 59 M.S. students. His research added knowledge to the culture of several finfishes, particularly channel catfish, and shellfish, most notably crayfish. He published over 450 scientific papers. In 1996, Dr. Avault published a textbook of aquaculture, which benefited from his breadth of experience. He has been a regular column writer for commercial trade magazines for nearly 30 years. Dr. Avault contributed significantly to the profession through his many and long editorial services. He edited the Proceedings (Journal) of the World Mariculture Society for 16 years from its inception. He served as an Associate Editor for the Progressive Fish-Culturist for two years. He has been an AFS member since 1963 and was President of the Fish Culture Section in 1976. He was a founding member of the World Mariculture Society, coordinated the first annual workshop in 1970, and he was President in 1975. He was also a founding member in the International Association of Astacology, serving as President in 1974. In recognition of his many achievements, Dr. Avault has been honored with a variety of awards. He has been given Honorary Life Membership in two professional societies, both of which he was instrumental in forming. Dr. Avault is married to Peggy Tyson Avault and they have two children, James William, III and Mary Catherine.  Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society. 2005.

Joe L. Banks began his career in fisheries while at Colorado State University in 1959, with summer jobs for the Nebraska Game, Fish and Parks Commission; the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Yellowstone National Park; and the Park Service in Dinosaur National Monument. After completing his Bachelors and Masters degrees in fisheries science, he was hired as a Fishery Research Biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1965 at the Abernathy Salmon Culture Laboratory in Longview, WA where he worked until his retirement in 1994. Within the Division of Fishery Research, he worked on several pioneering approaches for fish culture that involved nutritional studies, optimum feeding level projections, and water recycle systems. When the Abernathy Laboratory was converted to a Fish Culture Technology Center under the Division of National Fish Hatcheries, Mr. Banks focused his work on a series of projects that markedly enhanced the role, relevance and visibility of salmonid hatcheries. These projects included custom-programmed computer systems, egg incubation research, optimum temperature studies, accelerated rearing methods for spring Chinook salmon, handling and transport guidelines for unfertilized and newly fertilized salmon eggs, and several professional publications. Mr. Bank’s most outstanding contribution to fish culture was the series of innovative, long-term projects that he proposed, initiated and conducted to document the effects of raceway loading and fingerling rearing density on post-release survival and adult returns of Pacific salmon to the fishery. His findings had immediate management applications for fishery managers and hatchery programs. Mr. Banks clearly demonstrated that fall Chinook and Coho returns benefit from subtle increases in raceway rearing densities whereas spring Chinook are sensitive to the effects of enhanced densities. His well documented reports and publications on this subject have become the standard and basis for the rearing criteria used in both established and newly designed coho, spring, and fall Chinook salmon hatcheries on the West Coast. Joe’s pioneering research in fish culture is most deserving of recognition –because this rearing density research has been one of the most significant contributions within the field of fish culture in recent time. Enshrined into the “National Fish Culture Hall of Fame”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee. Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society. 2006.

Harry Kenneth Dupree was born on February 15, 1931, at Washington, D.C. Raised in Marion, Alabama, he attended Marion Military Institute, then transferred to Auburn University in 1950, and graduated in March, 1953 with a Bachelor of Science in Fisheries Management. After service in the Army, from 1953 to 1955, he returned to Auburn University, where he graduated with M.S. (1956) and Ph.D. (1960) degrees. Dr. Dupree started his career in 1960 as a Research Biologist at Southeastern fish Cultural Laboratory in Marion, Alabama and then became Director in 1965. From 1974 to his death in 1999, he was Director of the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center in Stuttgart, Arkansas. Dr. Dupree was one of the first students of Dr. Homer Swingle to leave Auburn University to spread fish culture technology and scientific methods to places outside of the university. His path clearly developed into an ever expanding web of people influenced by his experiences in aquaculture. From early research at the Southeastern Fish Culture Laboratory, Marion, Alabama to the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center, Stuttgart, Arkansas, Dr. Dupree’s influence expanded from state, to region, to nation, and on to international venues. Today, through the vital people stationed at the Stuttgart center, the foundation he helped lay for aquaculture research in the United States lives on. Publications authored by Dr. Dupree show knowledge of basic and applied science related to aquaculture. The summary work published in “Third Report to the Fish Farmers: The Status of Warmwater Fish Farming Research” has been used by thousands of students, professionals, and fish culturists. Dr. Dupree’s accomplishments have been recognized by naming the Stuttgart lab in his honor, he has been named to the Joe Hogan award by the Arkansas Chapter of the American Fisheries Society, and his defining publication has been republished.  He is survived by his wife, Ruth Turnipseed Dupree, Theodore, Alabama. Enshrined into the “National Fish Culture Hall of Fame”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee. Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society. 2007.

John G. Nickum is a scientist, conservationist, educator, public servant, fish culturist, and writer. Throughout his varied career, Dr. Nickum strived to develop practical solutions for complex problems, while also working to keep these solutions from being needlessly complex. He developed many of these personal values while earning a B.S. degree from Mankato State College, an M. S. from University of South Dakota and a Ph. D. from Southern Illinois University. His educational training was followed by teaching and research positions at South Dakota State University, Cornell University, and Iowa State University. His passion for practical conservation, which he defined as “using resources in such a manner that future generations can also use them”, began during his childhood on a farm in southeastern Minnesota where his father was an early user of contour farming techniques, a hunter, and an angler. This hands-on background provided the foundation for his practical resource conservation philosophy of “use it, but don’t abuse it.” Fish culture provided an ideal arena for his interests in pure science questions concerning fish nutrition, larval development, behavior, and health. John used his broad scientific background to develop culture systems and techniques for species, such as the walleye, that had not been reared previously under hatchery conditions, as well as improved methods for the culture of trout and catfish. John’s career in research, teaching, conservation, and fish culture were very much interwoven. He credits his former graduate students for accomplishing much of the hard, nitty gritty detailed work that led to numerous advances in fish culture techniques, including development of systems for producing “wild-looking, wild-acting” fish under hatchery conditions. John believed that his philosophy of guiding and assisting his students, but not limiting them, resulted in higher accomplishments for the students and himself. In his role as National Aquaculture Coordinator for the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, John used his experience as a scientist, fish culturist, and teacher to “Help Aquaculture Grow” in size, quality, and sustainability. After retirement, John turned to writing about fish culture, conservation, and science for the public; trying to encourage additional people to “challenge conventional wisdom”, to ask the question “How do you know that”, to use resources in a sustainable manner, and to learn from the past to improve the future. Enshrined into the “National Fish Culture Hall of Fame”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee. Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society. 2007.

Howard P. Clemens, a dedicated and exceptional scientist, made significant contributions to fish culture through his service as an educator, professional researcher, and practicing fish farmer. He was born on May 31, 1923 in Arthur, Ontario, Canada and passed away in Norman, Oklahoma on November 20, 2007. He earned a B.S. and M.S from the University of Western Ontario and a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1949. He began his professional career in 1949 in the Zoology Department of the University of Oklahoma where he engaged in an active program of teaching and research until his retirement in May 1983. ‘Howie’ to his friends and ‘Fish Doc’ to his students, he made his greatest contributions to fish culture in the area of fish reproduction. His exploration of basic questions in fish physiology found direct and rapid application to fish culture practices. The integral role of the pituitary gland in hormonal control of the reproductive cycle and its application to artificial propagation is a primary example. The direct use of pituitary glands to induce ovulation and spermiation were important applications to the management of reproduction. He was one of the first to apply steroid-induced sex-reversal techniques to tilapia, providing a practical mechanism to control excessive recruitment under culture conditions. Clemens made important contributions to the knowledge of channel catfish biology which were quickly adopted for food-fish aquaculture. These efforts were accomplished through active collaboration with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service researchers at the Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery (Oklahoma). Chemical treatment of catfish diseases illustrates such applications. He also applied his knowledge for several years in the operation of his own catfish farm and was the 2nd president of the Catfish Farmers of America.  Clemens contributed greatly to formal graduate student training and undergraduate education. He directed seventeen M.S. and Ph.D. programs. Perhaps he is most well known for his role in the development of an effective and innovative fish culture training program for the Peace Corps. He directly influenced hundreds of volunteers who were trained over a period of two decades; these volunteers applied their knowledge through basic extension techniques to farmers in 30 developing countries. Enshrined into the NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society, 2011.

Robert R. Rucker was an internationally known fishery biologist. His pioneering fish disease research was a major contributor to the success of modern fish culture, both here and abroad. He was born on January 23, 1912, in Goodhue, Minnesota and died July 16, 1998, in Seattle, Washington. His career spanned almost forty years and dates back to the beginnings of fish disease research. In 1936, he began research for the Division of Scientific Inquiry, Bureau of Fisheries in Seattle. He moved to Corvallis (1948-1950) with Dr. Fred Fish to study water pollution in the Willamette River. In 1950, at the invitation of the University of Washington School of Fisheries, Dr. Rucker returned to Seattle and established the Western Fish Disease Laboratory (Western Fisheries Research Center), which he directed until his retirement in 1973. Fish Culture Hall of Fame recipient Dr. John Halver describes Dr. Rucker as the “Western USA Fish Disease Expert” who was always involved in discovering new fish diseases and developing effective control measures for infectious pathogens. Gary Wedemeyer provided an overview of Dr. Rucker’s career and contribution to the field of fish culture in his 2001 speech at the Northwest Fish Culture Conference inducting Dr. Rucker into the Northwest Fish Culture Hall of Fame. “Dr. Rucker’s contributions to fish culture really date back to about 1936 when he developed a pioneering fish disease research program at the Mountlake Laboratory, a part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Seattle to help solve mortality problems plaguing the Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Working with Roger Burrows, he quickly discovered Columnaris disease, gas super saturation, cold-water disease, and bacterial kidney disease, among others. The work to control these diseases naturally grew in importance and in 1950, he established the Western Fish Disease Laboratory at the College of Fisheries at the University of Washington. He and his staff expanded their pioneering research and developed numerous new and improved diagnostic and control methods for infectious and non-infectious fish diseases then limiting the success of federal and state salmon hatcheries. Among his many contributions that have made modern fish hatcheries possible, Bob’s pioneering work on the measurement and control of nitrogen super saturation/gas bubble disease stands out. His research findings in this area have long served as the foundation for the advanced measurement and degassing techniques routinely used in today’s modern fish hatcheries. His work on infectious diseases was also outstanding and lead to international recognition of both Dr. Rucker and his staff. The bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri was named after Dr. Rucker in recognition of the pioneering work he did in learning how to control the disease that was at the time seriously impacting the success of public and private hatcheries.” Enshrined into the NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section. American Fisheries Society, 2011.

Wesley H. Orr has had a long, productive, and storied career that began when he was 16 years old as a laborer at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Spearfish National Fish Hatchery (NFH) and the McNenny NFH. He earned his Bachelor’s degree in fisheries science from Colorado State University in 1962, and was employed as a fisheries biologist at numerous hatcheries until he found his “home” at the Ennis NFH in Montana in 1973. This is where he resided as Manager for 27 years before retiring in 2000. It was in Ennis that he truly left his mark on the art and science of fish culture by revolutionizing rainbow trout broodstock, husbandry, and production. Wes changed the way rainbow trout eggs are collected, fertilized, and distributed, and redefined the strategies for establishing and maintaining a high-yield rainbow trout broodstock program. While at Ennis, he developed a program that provided over 30 million rainbow trout eggs per year to hatcheries, management, and recreational fishing programs throughout the country. During his tenure, he was responsible for shipping a staggering 438,780,605 eggs and 1,331,152 pounds of fish from six different strains of rainbow trout to over 30 different states and countries. Wes developed spawning protocols to reduce inbreeding and maintain the genetic integrity of the different strains of rainbow trout held at the Ennis hatchery. He was a leader in the use of genetic techniques in broodstock management, and led a team that developed specific breeding plans for each strain held on station to reduce inbreeding and maintain genetically appropriate resources for fish production and stocking. Strains were developed that spawned from June through February. At the time, Wes’s contributions put him at the forefront of this particular discipline and more importantly they are still used today. For more than a century rainbow trout have been the most widely cultured fish in North America, and yet in his career, Wes has shown that there is still more to learn. In a field that traces most of its forefathers back to the late 1800s and early 1900s, Wes Orr is a modern pioneering figure in fish culture. His good-natured personality, down-home character, sense of humor, and political savviness opened doors and afforded him countless opportunities to contribute not only to research projects, but to regional and national issues. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society, 2013.

Gary Wedemeyer is internationally known for his important work in a number of fields, most notably in fish stress physiology. During a long and productive career, his research produced more than 100 scientific publications, many of which have become seminal references in the field. In addition to his research, Gary is also well known for his teaching, worldwide scientific collaboration and great willingness to assist others. These attributes have made his a familiar name in the fisheries sciences and, especially, in the fields of fish health and fish physiology. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1965 from the University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Gary joined the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Fish-Pesticide Laboratory in Denver, Colorado to conduct research on the chemistry and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic ecosystems before moving on to the USFWS Western Fish Disease Laboratory in Seattle, Washington where he began research on stress physiology which formed the basis for a long and highly productive career. This pioneering research led to highly cited publications in the areas of blood chemistry, sampling methodology, ozone disinfection, crowding stress, physiology, smoltification, selenium toxicity, and fish culture. Colleagues note that Gary’s most significant contribution to fish culture was to bring about a greater understanding of the hatchery rearing environment and its effects on the initiation of fish diseases. Besides Gary’s substantial contribution to the scientific peer-reviewed literature, his research and familiarity with the field has resulted in authorship of important chapters in books on fish culture or fish physiology, two highly influential books including “The Role of Environmental Stress in Fish Disease” (1976) and “Physiology of Fish in Intensive Culture Systems” (1996), as well as the Senior Editorship of the Second Edition of the well-known and widely-used fish culture reference “Fish Hatchery Management” (2001). Gary formally retired in 1998 and was given Senior Scientist Emeritus status where his Curriculum Vita continues to grow. He considers the series of articles he wrote for the Encyclopedia of Aquaculture edited by Bob Stickney to be his final contribution to fish culture, but many think of them as the most recent addition to a lasting legacy. Gary has been a member of AFS since 1970 and is currently a Life Member, maintaining memberships in the Fish Health, Fish Culture, Fish History, and Physiology Sections. Enshrined into the “NATIONAL FISH CULTURE HALL OF FAME”, Spearfish, South Dakota. Executive Committee, Fish Culture Section, American Fisheries Society, 2013.